The Dutch Sound Foundation (Nederlandse Geluidstichting) was established in 1934 by scientists and engineers at the Society for Materials Research and the Royal Academy for Engineers, who also invited representatives of local and national government, car drivers, housewives, architects, aircraft manufacturers, and clergy to participate.
After coming to Paris in 1851, Rudolph Koenig trained with the violin maker Vuillaume until 1858, when he launched his own instrument-making business at Place Lycée Louis-le-Grand. Koenig’s workshop participated in Paris’s flourishing activities in scientific research and instrument-making from the 1830s to the 1880s. More specifically, it contributed to the development of acoustics as an independent field of research.
In 1876, the school dropout and trained mechanic Max Hans Robert Kohl founded a workshop for precision mechanics. The company soon grew, and two years later Kohl was already employing nineteen people. He specialized in producing systems and devices for technical and scientific purposes, and supplied laboratories and universities worldwide with his large range of up to 4,000 different products. Dayton Miller, chair of the physics department at Case Western Reserve University, was one of his many clients.
What is today known as the Lautarchiv (“sound archive”), based at the Humboldt University, Berlin, contains the remaining traces of almost a century’s endeavors in sound archiving: 7,500 shellac recordings and smaller collections of wax cylinders, tapes, and aluminum discs that document a wide variety of languages and dialects, along with “voice portraits” of famous public figures of the German Reich and Weimar Republic.
The Vienna Phonogrammarchiv was the first sound archive in the world, founded in 1899 by members of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. The Viennese historical holdings contain over 4000 recordings of mainly ethnolinguistic and ethnomusicological nature. It contains, among others, recordings made of Guarani-natives by botanic Richard Wettstein, recordings of the Kalahari Khoisan collected in New Guinea by anthropologist Rudolf Pöch, and recordings of celtic minorities and basques by Rudolf Trebitsch.
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